West, MT; Tsang, SL; Low, JS; Hill, CD; Leckie, C; Hollenberg, LCL; Erfani, SM; Usman, M

Machine learning algorithms are powerful tools for data-driven tasks such as image classification and feature detection. However, their vulnerability to adversarial examples—input samples manipulated to fool the algorithm—remains a serious challenge. The integration of machine learning with quantum computing has the potential to yield tools offering not only better accuracy and computational efficiency, but also superior robustness against adversarial attacks. Indeed, recent work has employed quantum-mechanical phenomena to defend against adversarial attacks, spurring the rapid development of the field of quantum adversarial machine learning (QAML) and potentially yielding a new source of quantum advantage. Despite promising early results, there remain challenges in building robust real-world QAML tools. In this Perspective, we discuss recent progress in QAML and identify key challenges. We also suggest future research directions that could determine the route to practicality for QAML approaches as quantum computing hardware scales up and noise levels are reduced.