ABSTRACT: Singlet-triplet qubits typically require large magnetic field gradients on the order of militeslas to achieve high-fidelity electrically-controlled qubit operations. However, such large magnetic field gradients in quantum dot systems also increase charge noise and provide a relaxation pathway from the triplet to singlet qubit state, making high-fidelity readout challenging. Recently, shelving and latched readout have been employed in gate-defined quantum dots and donor-dot systems to achieve readout fidelities of 80% and 99.86%, respectively. In this paper, we theoretically examine shelving and latched singlet-triplet readout techniques for multidonor-based qubits in silicon where the large phosphorus hyperfine interaction of the order of 100 MHz gives rise to large effective magnetic field gradients (equivalent to tens of mT) but where it can change in time due to the presence of nuclear spin flips. Using numerical simulations, we show that shelving readout does not work giving a zero average visibility for mutidonor quantum dots, due to the time-varying nuclear spin polarization. To remedy this we propose adding a calibration step, in which we derive the nuclear spin polarization from a single shelving readout of a singlet state, before every qubit operation. The derived information can then be used via a feed-forward protocol to apply correct readout mapping, greatly improving the overall readout fidelity to
>99%. We also simulate the latched readout mechanism, which is resistant to nuclear polarization changes and is thus promising for achieving high visibility readout. Here we observe a nonzero readout visibility irrespective of the nuclear spin flipping. Finally, we discuss how to optimize the readout visibility in the presence of strong hyperfine interactions and show that for both readout methods we can obtain readout fidelity
>99%. These results demonstrate that singlet-triplet qubits based on multidonor quantum dots are a promising route for future electrically controlled qubits in silicon.

Read Article