B Li, LO. Conlon, PK Lam, SM Assad
Quantum bits, or qubits, are the fundamental building blocks of present quantum computers. Hence, it is important to be able to characterize the state of a qubit as accurately as possible. By evaluating the qubit characterization problem from the viewpoint of quantum metrology, we are able to find optimal measurements under the assumption of good prior knowledge. We implement these measurements on a superconducting quantum computer. Our experiment produces sufficiently low error to allow the saturation of the theoretical limits, given by the Nagaoka–Hayashi bound. We also present simulations of adaptive measurement schemes utilizing the proposed method. The results of the simulations show the robustness of the method in characterizing arbitrary qubit states with different amounts of prior knowledge.