Cheng, Bin, Deng, XH., Gu, X. et al.
Quantum computers have made extraordinary progress over the past decade, and significant milestones have been achieved along the path of pursuing universal fault-tolerant quantum computers. Quantum advantage, the tipping point heralding the quantum era, has been accomplished along with several waves of breakthroughs. Quantum hardware has become more integrated and architectural compared to its toddler days. The controlling precision of various physical systems is pushed beyond the fault-tolerant threshold. Meanwhile, quantum computation research has established a new norm by embracing industrialization and commercialization. The joint power of governments, private investors, and tech companies has significantly shaped a new vibrant environment that accelerates the development of this field, now at the beginning of the noisy intermediate-scale quantum era. Here, we first discuss the progress achieved in the field of quantum computation by reviewing the most important algorithms and advances in the most promising technical routes, and then summarizing the next-stage challenges. Furthermore, we illustrate our confidence that solid foundations have been built for the fault-tolerant quantum computer and our optimism that the emergence of quantum killer applications essential for human society shall happen in the future.