Entanglement is the key resource for many long-range quantum information tasks, including secure communication and fundamental tests of quantum physics. These tasks require robust verification of shared entanglement, but performing it over long distances is presently technologically intractable because the loss through an optical fiber or free-space channel opens up a detection loophole. We design and experimentally demonstrate a scheme that verifies entanglement in the presence of at least 14.8 ± 0.1 dB of added loss, equivalent to approximately 80 km of telecommunication fiber. Our protocol relies on entanglement swapping to herald the presence of a photon after the lossy channel, enabling event-ready implementation of quantum steering. This result overcomes the key barrier in device-independent communication under realistic high-loss scenarios and in the realization of a quantum repeater.