In this book chapter we review photon echo based schemes for optical quantum memory. We outline the basic principles of the Atomic Frequency Comb (AFC), Gradient Echo Memory (GEM) and Rephased Amplified Spontaneous Emission (RASE) protocols. We describe the properties of the rare-earth ion and gaseous vapours ensembles that have been used to carry out experimental demonstrations. These experiments are then discussed with reference to relevant classical and quantum performance criteria.