Technologies that capture the complex electrical dynamics occurring in biological systems, across fluid membranes and at solid–liquid interfaces are important for furthering fundamental understanding and innovation in diverse fields from neuroscience to energy storage. However, the capabilities of existing voltage imaging techniques utilising microelectrode arrays, scanning probes or optical fluorescence methods are limited by resolution, scan speed and photostability, respectively. Here we report an optoelectronic voltage imaging system that overcomes these limitations by using nitrogen-vacancy defects as charge-sensitive fluorescent reporters embedded within a transparent semiconducting diamond device. Electrochemical tuning of the diamond surface termination enables photostable optical voltage imaging with a quantitative linear response at biologically relevant voltages and timescales. This technology represents a major step towards label-free, large-scale and long-term voltage recording of physical and biological systems with sub-micrometre spatial resolution.
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